Department of Knee replacement
Knee replacement, also known as knee arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve pain and disability. It is most commonly performed for osteoarthritis and also for other knee diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.
In patients with severe deformity from advanced rheumatoid arthritis, trauma, or long-standing osteoarthritis, the surgery may be more complicated and carry higher risk. Osteoporosis does not typically cause knee pain, deformity, or inflammation and is not a reason to perform knee replacement
Other major causes of debilitating pain include meniscus tears, cartilage defects, and ligament tears. Debilitating pain from osteoarthritis is much more common in the elderly.
Knee replacement surgery can be performed as a partial or a total knee replacement. In general, the surgery consists of replacing the diseased or damaged joint surfaces of the knee with metal and plastic components shaped to allow continued motion of the knee.
What are the causes of knee pain?
- A large number of diseases and injuries can damage the knee to the point where it becomes painful or will not function properly.
- Although a large number of diseases can cause knee pain, the following are the most important ones: osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and post-traumatic arthritis
- Osteoarthritis: This is an age-related ‘wear and tear’ type of arthritis. It usually occurs in people 50 years of age and older.
- Rheumatoid arthritis: This is a disease in which the synovial membrane that surrounds the joint becomes inflamed and thickened. This chronic inflammation can damage the cartilage and bone leading to pain and deformities.
- Post-traumatic arthritis: This can follow major fractures of the bones surrounding the knee or tears of the knee.
In an arthritic knee the joint cartilage gets degenerated and the normally protected nerve endings in the bone gets exposed giving rise to severe pain. Also secondary effects like inflammation of synovium (soft tissue lining the joint), joint effusion, muscle spasm are present. Ultimately the joint end up in permanently deformed and a painful state restricting not only work and recreation, but also ordinary daily activities.